Economic and environmental aspects of sustainable urban infrastructure including transportation, buildings and water systems; Design of sustainable streets and neighbourhoods; Urban metabolism.
Education and Designations
B.Eng (Imperial, UK)
Postgrad. Dipl. Economics (Warwick, UK)
|Course Code||Title & Description||Keywords||Instructor||Session||Timetable|
|CEM1003H||Graduate, MEngCEM||Prof. Christopher Kennedy||Winter 2016||Tuesdays 1400-1600 in MB232|
|CIV577H1||Undergrad, Civil, Graduate, Environmental, Building||Prof. Christopher Kennedy||Winter 2016||Scheduled by the Office of the Faculty Registrar.|
Design of Sustainable Streets and Neighbourhoods
Designing streets and neighbourhoods to achieve low life-cycle environmental impacts while attaining socio-economic goals lies at the heart of developing sustainable cities. This research blends together traditional areas of building science, municipal engineering and transportation planning, and applies methods of life cycle assessment, towards the design of sustainable streets and neighbourhoods. Projects include: design of green roofs; the impacts of urban form and microclimatology on building energy use; design of neighbourhoods to support sustainable transportation modes; and study of the influence of urban forestry on neighbourhood sustainability.
Urban Metabolism / Sustainable Cities
Analogous to the human metabolism, urban regions can be assessed in terms of their inputs and outputs of energy, materials, water and nutrients. This research produced one of first urban metabolism studies of a North American city – for the Greater Toronto Area - and made comparison with cities worldwide. On-going work seeks to link the urban metabolism to socio-economic driving forces.
The requirements of maintaining and rehabilitating deteriorating infrastructure pose a considerable challenge to society. To assist the decision making process, this research aims to better quantify the benefits and costs of infrastructure systems by including risks/uncertainties and wider macroeconomic effects.
Bristow, D., R. Richman, A. Kirsh, C. A. Kennedy, K. D. Pressnail, Hour by Hour Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for a Low Energy Condominium Design, accepted for publication in J. Industrial Ecology, June 2010.
Derrible, S., and C.A. Kennedy. The Complexity and Robustness of Metro Networks, accepted for publication in Physica A, April 2010.
Derrible, S., and C.A. Kennedy, Comparing Toronto Transit Plans to Major Systems in the World using Updated Graph Theory, accepted for publication in Transportation Research Record, March, 2010.
Derrible, S., S, Saneinejad, L. Sugar and C.A. Kennedy, Macroscopic greenhouse-gases emissions model of urban transportation for municipalities, accepted for publication in Transportation Research Record, March, 2010.
O’Brien, W., C.A. Kennedy, A. Athienitis, and T. Kesik. The relationship between net energy use and the urban density of solar buildings, accepted for publication in Environment and Planning B, January 2010.
Bristow, D., and C.A. Kennedy, Potential of Building-Scale Alternative Energy to Alleviate Risk from the Future Price of Energy, Energy Policy, 38 (4), 1885-1894, 2010.
Kennedy, C., J. Steinberger, B. Gasson, T. Hillman, M. Havránek, Y. Hansen, D. Pataki, A. Phdungsilp, A. Ramaswami, G. Villalba Mendez, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Cities, Environmental Science and Technology, 43, 7297–7302, 2009.
Kennedy, C., J. Steinberger, B. Gasson, T. Hillman, M. Havránek, Y. Hansen, D. Pataki, A. Phdungsilp, A. Ramaswami, G. Villalba Mendez. Methodology for Inventorying Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Global Cities, Energy Policy, 37(9), 2010.
Derrible, S., and C.A. Kennedy, Characterising Metro Networks: State, Form and Structure, Transportation, 37 (2), 275-297, 2010
Derrible, S., and C.A. Kennedy, A Network Analysis of Subway Systems in the World using Updated Graph Theory, Transportation Research Record, No. 2112, 17-25, 2009.
Kikuchi, E., Bristow, D., and Kennedy, C.A., Evaluation of Region-specific Residential Energy Systems for GHG reductions: Case Studies in Canadian Cities, Energy Policy, 37 (4), 1257-1266, 2009.
Codoban, N and Kennedy, C.A. The Metabolism of Neighbourhoods, ASCE J. of Urban Planning and Development, 134(1), 21-31, 2008.
Racoviceanu, A., Karney, B.W., Kennedy, C.A., and Colombo, A.F., Life cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions inventory for water treatment systems, ASCE J. of Infrastructure Systems, 13(4), 261-270, 2007.
Sahely, H.R. and Kennedy, C.A. Integrated systems flow model for quantifying environmental and economic sustainability indicators: Case study of the City of Toronto urban water system, ASCE Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 133(6), 550-559, 2007.
VandeWeghe, J., and Kennedy, C.A. A Spatial Analysis of Residential Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area. J. Industrial Ecology, 11(2), 133-144, 2007.
Kennedy, C.A., J. Cuddihy, and J. Engel Yan, The changing metabolism of cities, J. Industrial Ecology, 11(2), 43- 59, 2007
Pataki, D.E., R.J. Alig, A.S. Fung, N.E. Golubiewski, C.A. Kennedy, E.G. McPherson, D.J. Nowak, R.V. Pouyat, P. Romero Lankao, Urban ecosystems and the North American carbon cycle, Global Change Biology, 12 1-11, 2006.
Saiz, S., Kennedy, C.A., Bass, B. and Pressnail K., Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Standard and Green Roofs, Environmental Science and Technology, 40(13):4312-4316, 2006.
Norman, J., H. MacLean, and C.A. Kennedy, Comparing high and low residential density: A life-cycle analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, ASCE, J. of Urban Planning and Development, 132(1), 10-21, 2006.
Zhang, L., and C.A. Kennedy, Determination of sustainable yield in urban groundwater systems: Beijing, China, ASCE J. Hydrologic Engineering, 11(1), 21-28, 2006.
Kennedy, C.A., H. Ericsson, and P.L.R. Wong, Gaussian plume modeling of contaminant transport, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 20(1-2), 119-125, 2006.
Dong, B., C.A. Kennedy, and K. Pressnail, Comparing life cycle implications of building retrofit and replacement options, Canadian Journal for Civil Engineering, 32(6), 1051-1063, 2005.
Fung, M., and C.A. Kennedy, An integrated macroeconomic model for assessing urban sustainability, Environment and Planning, B, 32(5) 639-656, 2005.
Kennedy, C.A., E. Miller, A. Shalaby, H. MacLean , and J. Coleman, The four pillars of sustainable urban transportation, Transport Reviews, 25(4), 393-414, 2005.
Elgar, I., and C.A. Kennedy, Review of optimal transit subsidies: A comparison between models, ASCE, J. of Urban Planning and Development, 131, 71-79, 2005.
Engel Yan, J., C.A. Kennedy, S. Saiz, and K. Pressnail, Towards sustainable neighbourhoods: The need to consider infrastructure interactions, Canadian Journal for Civil Engineering, 32(1), 45-57, 2005.
Cuddihy, J., C.A. Kennedy, and P. Byer, Energy use in Canada: Environmental impacts and opportunities in relationship to infrastructure systems, Canadian Journal for Civil Engineering, 32(1), 1-15, 2005.
Sahely, H.R., C.A. Kennedy, and B.J. Adams, Developing sustainability criteria for urban infrastructure systems, Canadian Journal for Civil Engineering, 32(1), 72-85, 2005.
Kennedy, C.A., W. He, and M. Fung, Role of the construction sector in the economy of a city, Canadian Journal for Civil Engineering, 31, 155-159, 2004.
Kennedy, C.A., Interpretation of Monte Carlo simulations using parameter space plots, Risk Analysis, 24(2), 437-442, 2004.
Sahely, H.R., S. Dudding, and C.A. Kennedy, Estimating the urban metabolism of Canadian cities: GTA case study, Canadian Journal for Civil Engineering, 30, 468-483, 2003.
Kennedy, C.A., A comparison of the sustainability of public and private transportation systems: Study of the Greater Toronto Area, Transportation, 29, 459-493, 2002.
Kennedy, C.A., R. Hyde, and B. Karney, Development of environmental knowledge and attitudes in engineering students, Bulletin of Science Technology and Society, 22(6), 460-473, 2002.
Zachariah, L., C.A. Kennedy, and K. Pressnail, What makes a building green? International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 2(1-3), 38-53, 2002.
Kennedy, C.A, and W.C. Lennox, A stochastic interpretation of the tailing effect in solute transport, Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 15(4), 325- 340, 2001.
Kennedy, C.A., and W.C. Lennox, Moment operations on random variables, with applications for risk assessment, Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 16, 253-259, 2001.
Kennedy, C.A., H. Ericsson, and W.C. Lennox, Removing the boundaries to efficient groundwater contaminant transport modelling, in Calibration and Reliability in Groundwater Modelling: Coping with Uncertainty, F. Stauffer, W. Kinzelbach, K. Kovar, and E. Hoehn editors, IAHS, Wallingford UK, 28-33, 2000.
Hyde, R.A., B.W. Karney, and C.A. Kennedy, Fishing for a new way to teach environmentally sensitive engineering practice, Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, 20(5), 385-393, 2000.
Kennedy, C.A., and W.C. Lennox, Solution to the practical problem of moments using non-classical orthogonal polynomials with applications for probabilistic analysis, Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, 15, 371-379, 2000.
Kennedy, C.A., and W.C. Lennox, Screening model for the contamination of a well in a uniform flow field, Water Resources Research, 35(9), 2871-2875, 1999.
Kennedy, C.A., and W.C. Lennox, Incorporation of computer algebra into an undergraduate course in open channel hydraulics, European Journal of Engineering Education, 22(3), 1997.
Kennedy, C.A., and W.C. Lennox, A pore-scale investigation of mass transport from dissolving DNAPL droplets, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 24, 221-246, 1997.
Kennedy, C.A., and W.C. Lennox, A control volume model of solute transport in a single fracture, Water Resources Research, 31(2), 313-322, 1994.
Professor Kennedy has advised over 25 graduate students, many of whom are now involved in the design of sustainable infrastructure in various locations around the world. Graduates of the group include green building designers in Vancouver; a researcher studying the implementation of hydrogen infrastructure in Holland; an energy consultant in Ottawa; and a PhD. candidate in urban planning at Washington State University. Several former students are now certified LEED green building designers; two have studied further degrees in architecture. Further graduates include: hydrogeologists in Toronto; water resources engineers in Texas and Sweden; and transportation planners in Beijing, Cambridge (UK), and Toronto. Undergraduates who have worked with Professor Kennedy have gone on to complete Masters degrees at Stanford and MIT.
International Society for Industrial Ecology: www.is4ie.org
Top 100 Sustainable Development Sites: www.world.org/weo/growth